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while possibly establishing a new female milieu of sports spectatorship

Le 30 January 2015, 03:48 dans Humeurs 0

Women’s soccer may present an opportunity to fifa 15 coins utilize what we have termed the ‘institutionalization of primacy’—along with global excellence—that has been a key requisite for the successful perpetuation of any team sport and major league in the American sports space. To wit: it is a given for Americans (as well as for sports fans in the rest of the world) that Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association and National Hockey League all represent the ultimate of their respective sports. Indeed, athletes in any of the Big Three and One-half from anywhere in the world must by necessity aspire to play in these North American venues if they want to ‘reach the top’. Yet, the situation for soccer—specifically, on the men’s side—has been exactly the opposite, while soccer itself (again, the men’s game) is exceedingly diffuse in terms of its institutionalization. Unlike the aforementioned major leagues of the Big Three and One-half, there is no single pinnacle in soccer, but instead several competitive forums and institutions that could make a legitimate claim for primacy: each of the elite four leagues in Europe, the European championship tournaments (annually), or the World Cup tournament (quadrennially).


But in terms of women’s soccer, a venue does indeed now exist that fulfils the requisite of institutional primacy necessary for success in the American sports space: the Women’s United Soccer Association, in which not only the best American players compete, but also where the top women soccer players from all over the world may be found (when not playing for their national sides). Hence, in noted contrast to its male counterpart, MLS, the WUSA may quite possibly harness both the forces of nationalism and the requisite of institutional primacy to establish soccer on a permanently firm footing in the American sports space. In doing so, it may also redefine how women’s team sports and their participants are perceived and valued by American society (and, perhaps, in other nations), while possibly establishing a new female milieu of sports spectatorship, following and affect, expanding and changing the ways in which women relate to team sports as fans. Indeed, for women’s soccer to become a permanent feature of American sports as culture (that is, beyond the activity of the participants and the following of a small or modest number of enthusiasts), we have argued that this would have to occur.

which might be considered as the most important should the shoot-out reach that far

Le 28 January 2015, 03:23 dans Humeurs 0

The nature of the penalty kick necessitates a fifa 15 coins decision by the goalkeeper in real-time based on the detection of visual cues. However, some decisions in sports contests can be made ahead of time. In soccer the line-up order for a penalty shoot-out provides a good case for a priori decision-making on the part of the coaching staff. If the probability of a given player scoring on a penalty kick varies with context – say the scoring probability varies depending on the importance attached to a given penalty kick – then the line-up order that best maximizes the chances of winning the penalty shoot-out poses an interesting question. The problem presented is one of optimisation as illustrated in the following dilemma. To which penalty kick should the best penalty taker be assigned – the f irst penalty kick in order (hopefully) to get the team off to a good start, the f ifth penalty kick, which might be considered as the most important should the shoot-out reach that far, or the third penalty kick, which is more important than the f irst penalty kick while, at the same time, guarantees that the best penalty taker will take a kick in the shoot-out? McGarry and Franks (2000) analysed all line-up combinations using computer simulations to try to answer the above questions. The analyses indicated that the order of 5– 4 –3–2–1 represents the best line-up with which to contest a penalty shoot-out –, that is, the f ifth best penalty taker should take the first penalty kick, the fourth best penalty taker the second penalty kick and so on. These results hold for a certain set of initial conditions. The best strategy follow- ing a tie after five kicks each (i.e. ‘sudden death’) is to assign the next best penalty taker to the next penalty kick. This is to say that the sixth best penalty taker should be assigned to the sixth penalty kick, the seventh best penalty taker to the seventh penalty kick and so on. This sequence applies for each team regardless of which team wins the coin toss and hence takes the first penalty kick.

The example from the penalty shoot-out exemplifies the point that some of the decisions that must be made in a particular sport context can be prepared for ahead of time. Wider implications for match strategies in soccer emerge if the best line-up for a penalty shoot-out is to be carried out successfully in practice. For instance, following a tied game at the end of extra time it becomes necessary for the coaching staff to identify the best five penalty takers from the available players on the f ield of play. In practice, this would require an a priori ranking of the penalty-taking abilities of each squad player. Importantly, the goalkeepers (i.e. penalty stoppers) should be subjected to the same ranking process too. The intelligent use of substitutions, including goalkeepers, with an eye on a pending penalty shoot-out was therefore advised, circumstances permitting (McGarry and Franks, 2000).


The penalty shoot-out is an important component in the knock-out rounds of soccer com- petition, as indicated in the following ‘statistic’. In each of the 1982–98 World Cups, as well as the 1996–2000 European Championships, at least one team in the f inal match won a penalty shoot-out in a knock-out round of that same tournament. The only exception to this statistic was the 1994 World Cup in which the f inal match itself was decided on a penalty shoot-out. If a team is to win an international soccer tournament then there is a fair chance that it will have to win a penalty shoot-out in that same competition. The long-term systematic preparation of the entire squad for a penalty shoot-out would therefore seem appropriate.

The rest of the technique is the same—deal with the line of flight of the ball

Le 26 January 2015, 05:03 dans Humeurs 0

The progression for successfully winning head balls begins fifa 15 coins with players dealing with the line of flight of the ball. They want to get into the line of flight so that they can attack the ball along a 180-degree line. The player’s concentration is not on the opponent but on the path of the ball and getting into the line of flight to attack the ball. A player can always jump higher with a one-foot takeoff preceded by a short run-up, so every effort is made to find a path to the ball that allows a couple of steps followed by a one-foot takeoff. This may require even stepping away from the opponent, but if the line of flight is determined early, the header can attack the ball with an explosive one-foot takeoff. As the header jumps to head, his or her arms should explosively lift to shoulder height to help gain elevation. At the same time, the arms should extend out to the side of the body, elbows flexed, parallel with the shoulders to create a cone of space around the header that simultaneously wards off the opponent and allows the header an unobstructed path to strike the ball.

To gain space in the air, the header is making a concerted effort to translate the horizontal stepping component into a vertical jumping component. Jumping first and making the body as big as possible prevents the opponent from entering the space in which the ball is coming down. Striking the ball at the apex of the jump further ensures winning the head ball.

Although it is always preferable to execute a short run-up or a couple of steps for a one-foot takeoff, there are times when a player can’t achieve any sort of run- up. When players must head a ball while standing still, they should use a two-foot takeoff. The rest of the technique is the same—deal with the line of flight of the ball (not the opponent); jump explosively, using the arms to help gain lift; and create a cone of space with wide arms parallel to the shoulders. Make every effort to jump before the opponent and strike the ball at the apex of the jump.


It is during the jump that the bow and arrow action is used to powerfully strike the ball. As the player is jumping, he or she is arching the body as if drawing a bow. At the apex of the jump, the head, shoulders, and trunk explode forward to strike the ball. The legs flex backward on loading and extend forward to counterbalance the body as the head strikes the ball.

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